I. NAME AND ORIGIN
• Common name: Moringa (VN), Moringa (international), Drumstick tree (US), Horseradish tree, Behen, Drumstick Tree, Indian Horseradish, Noix de Bahen.
• Science name: Moringa oleifera or M. pterygosperma belongs to the family of Moringaceae
• The Buddha is called a tree Degree of Birth (Tree of Life)
Pharmacists, botanists, based on the nutrient content and the source of rare and precious medicinal herbs tested, did not hesitate to name it tree. Wonderful (Miracle Tree).
• Source: The tree is native to South Asia, has a history of more than 4 thousand years, but is common in both Asia and Africa. Moringa is very popular in India and is respected by the Indian people as the Indian tree
II. BENEFITS, UTILITIES AND VALUE
• Benefits and uses:
Moringa Moringa Oleifera is currently used by 80 countries around the world, advanced and widely used in pharmaceutical technology, cosmetics, nutritional soft drinks and functional foods. Developing countries use Moringa as a miracle medicine combined with curing critical illnesses, common diseases and nutritious foods.
Plant parts contain many important minerals, and are a good source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and many phenolics. Moringa provides a blend of many compounds such as zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol, very rare in other plants.
• Treatment:. Plant parts such as leaves, roots, seeds, bark, fruits and flowers have activities such as stimulating the activity of the heart and the circulatory system, anti-tumor, antipyretic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-convulsive, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, liver-protective, antibiotic and anti-fungal treatment. The plant has been used to treat many ailments. in folk medicine in many countries in South Asia. (Phytotherapy Research No. 21-2007).
• Nutrition: The nutritious moringa leaf is now considered by the world organizations WHO and FAO as the preeminent solution for milk-deficient mothers and malnourished children, and a food solution for the third world.
• For children 1-3 years old, eating 20 grams of fresh moringa leaves provides 90 Calcium, 100 Vitamin C, Vitamin A, 15 chat sat, 10 essential proteins and content of Potassium, Copper, ... and Vitamin B supplements Figs are needed for children.
• For pregnant and lactating mothers, only 100 grams of fresh leaves daily are enough to supplement Calcium, Vitamin C, VitaminA, Iron, Copper, Magnesium, Sulfur, and B vitamins needed throughout the day.
• How to use : Raw vegetables: fresh leaves used as raw salads as salads_ Smoothie: grind 20gr leaves with 2 teaspoons of milk, 2 teaspoons of milk sugar as drink smoothiesC soup: 100gr moringa leaves cooked with 50gr of beef or pork , or cook vegetarian with 100gr mushrooms.
• Lotion : In the US and European countries, Moringa is widely used in skin care, high-class cosmetics.
Simple to use: you can apply immediately: pound 20gr of leaves, so as not to mix with Moringa oil and apply twice, each time 7 minutes, for a day, for a week, you will see the effect.
(Note: do not incubate on the skin for longer than 10 minutes)
Pure water: Moringa oleifera contains a number of natural "polyelectrolytes" that can be used as a flocculant to make water. Water filtration test results: Turbid water (15-25 NTU turbidity, containing Bacterial bacteria 280-500 cfu ml (-1), coli from faeces 280-500 MPN 100 ml (-1) Use Moringa as a sedative and agglomeration agent, resulting in very good results (turbidity only 0.3-1.5 NTU; 5-20 cfu remaining trash; and 5-10 MPN coli.) This filter is very useful in rural areas of poor countries .. and is widely applied. widely available in India (Journal of Water and Health No. 3-2005).
III. MORINGA SEEDING STAGE FROM SEEDS
IV. PLANT CHARACTERISTICS
The tree is a rustic tree, can grow 5 to 10m tall. Double leaves (up to 3 times = triple-pinnate) 30-60 cm long, feathered, moldy green; leaflets 12 - 20 mm long, ovoid, opposite to 6 - 9 pairs. Flowers are white, stems, pea-like shape, growing in panicles in leaf axils, fluffy. Fruit hanging capsule form, 25 - 30cm long, 2 cm across, with 3 edges, where the grain is a bit rough, along the grooved fruit. The seeds are black and round with 3 edges and the size of a pea. Plants bloom in January - February.
• Chemical composition: Roots contain: Glucosinolates such as 4- (alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate (about 1) after being affected by myrosinase, will give 4- (alpha-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate. Glucotropaeolin (about 0.05) will give benzylisothiocyanate.
• Seeds contain: Glucosinolates (as in roots): up to 9 after the seed has been defatted. Carboxylic acid phenols such as 1-beta-D-glucosyl-2,6-dimethyl benzoate. Fatty oils (20-50): The main parts include fatty acids such as oleic acid (60-70), palmitic acid (3-12), stearic acid (3-12) and other fatty acids such as behenic acid, eicosanoic and lignoceric acid.
• Leaves contain: Flanonoids and phenolic compounds such as kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. The identified flavonol glycosides belong to the kaempferide group that is linked to rhamnoside or glucoside.
V. NUTRITION COMPOSITION
An analysis of the nutrient content of fresh Moringa fruits, fresh leaves and dried powder of Moringa leaves according to the July 17, 1998 report of Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association in Conjunction.
|ANALYSIS TABLE OF NUTRITION VOLUME OF MORINGA|
|No.||NUTRITION COMPOSITION / 100gr||FRESH FRUIT||FRESH LEAF||DRIED POWDER|
|04||Fat (g) (fat)||0,1||1,7||2,3|
|06||Fiber (g) (fiber)||4,8||0,9||19,2|
|07||Minerals (g) (minerals)||2,0||2,3||_|
|15||Oxalic acid (mg)||10||101||1,6|
|16||Vitamin A - Beta Carotene (mg)||0,11||6,8||1,6|
|17||Vitamin B - choline (mg)||423||423||–|
|18||Vitamin B1 - thiamin (mg)||0,05||0,21||2,64|
|19||Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin (mg)||0,07||0,05||20,5|
|20||Vitamin B3 - nicotinic acid (mg)||0,2||0,8||8,2|
|21||Vitamin C - ascorbic acid (mg)||120||220||17,3|
|22||Vitamin E - tocopherol acetate||–||–||113|
|23||Arginine (g / 16gN)||3,66||6,0||1,33|
|24||Histidine (g / 16gN)||1,1||2,1||0,61|
|25||Lysine (g / 16gN)||1,5||4,3||1,32|
|26||Tryptophan (g / 16gN)||0,8||1,9||0,43|
|27||Phenylanaline (g / 16gN)||4,3||6,4||1,39|
|28||Methionine (g / 16gN)||1,4||2,0||0,35|
|29||Threonine (g / 16gN)||3,9||4,9||1,19|
|30||Leucine (g / 16gN)||6,5||9,3||1,95|
|31||Isoleucine (g / 16gN)||4,4||6,3||0,83|
|32||Valine (g / 16gN)||5,4||7,1||1,06|
BECAUSE. COMPARISON OF NUTRITION VOLUME
COMPARISON NUTRITION TABLE IN EACH 100GR FRESH & DRIED LEAF:
• COMPARISON TABLE FOR NUTRITION
(According to the latest synthesis document about Moringa by ZijaMoringaHealth.Com)
Moringa oleifera contains more than 90 synthetic nutrients. These essential nutrients to maintain human health, to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, to treat common panic. The images illustrated below are a comparison of scientists' research between the superior nutritional content of Moringa leaves and the typical foods and fruits used such as Oranges, Carrots. , Milk, Spinach, Yaourt, and Banana if compared on same weight:
- Vitamin C 7 times more than oranges
Vitamin C strengthens the immune system in the body and treats infectious diseases such as the flu.
- Vitamin A 4 times more than Carrots
Vitamin A acts as a shield against eye, skin and heart diseases, and prevents diarrhea and other common ailments.
- Calcium 4 times more than milk
Calcium fortifies bones and teeth, helps prevent osteoporosis ..
- Iron 3 times more than spinach
Iron is an essential substance that plays an important role in transmitting oxygen in the blood to all parts of the body.
- Protein (protein) 2 times more than yogurt
Protein is the substance that builds cells for the body, it is made from the A-min acid, normally the A-min acid has only animal products such as egg meat, milk ... rather strange. leaves Moringa contain those essential amino acids.
- Potassium 3 times more than bananas
Potassium is essential for the brain and nervous system.
COMPARISON TABLE FOR NUTRITION ( Other souces):
VII. HOC RESEARCH STUDIES ABOUT Moringa
Moringa is considered a versatile tree, very useful in poor countries in the "Third World", so it has been studied quite a lot on pharmaceutical activities, nutritional value and industry. The majority of studies were conducted in India, Philippines, and Africa.
• Moringa oleifera's versatile character:
The most extensive study of the value of Moringa oleifera was conducted at Falsalabad Agricultural University, Pakistan:
Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a tree with high economic value, distributed in many tropical and subtropical countries. Plants are both a source of medicinal herbs and a very good source of food. Plant parts contain many important minerals, and are a source of protein, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and many phenolics ...
• Antifungal activity causing disease:
Research at the Institute of Bioagricultural Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan) found that extracts from Moringa leaves and ethanol seeds have the activity to kill pathogenic fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Chemical analyzes found in Moringa leaves from 44 chemicals. (Bioresource Technology No. 98-2007).
• Moringa has effects on cholesterol and lipids in the blood:
A study at Baroda University, Kalabhavan, Gujarat (India) on the activity on the lipid parameters of Moringa, tested on rabbits, noted: Rabies fed Moringa (200mg / kg daily) or lovastatin (6mg) / kg / day) mixed in a food mixture of high cholestero-producing properties, the test lasts 120 days. The results showed that Moringa and Lovastatin had the effect of lowering cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, VLDL, LDL lowering cholesterol / phospholipid ratio in the blood ... compared to rabbits in control group. When given to a normal rabbit using Moringa or Lovastatin: HDL levels decrease but if the rabbit has high cholesterol, the level of HDL increases. Moringa also has an additional effect on increasing the excretion of cholesterol in the stool (Journal of Ethnopharmacology No. 86-2003).
• Anticonvulsant, anti-swelling and diuretic activity:
Hot water extract of Moringa has been studied at the Technical Research Center (CEMAT) in Guatamala City on pharmacological activities, in rats. The anticonvulsant activity was demonstrated by testing in isolated mice, the anti-swelling action in mice with carrageenan edema and diuretic effect equal to the amount of urine collected when rats were kept in cages. Seed extract showed a pronounced inhibitory effect on the convulsions induced by acetylcholine at ED50 = 65.6 mg / ml medium; The secondary inhibitory effect caused by carrageenan is determined at 1000 mg / kg and diuretic activity at 1000 mg / kg. The extract from the roots also gives some results (Journal of Ethnopharmacology No. 36-1992).
• Mutants genes from ripe Moringa seeds:
A number of compounds that mutate genes have been found in ripe Moringa seeds: The most important are identified as 4 (alpha Lrhamnosyloxy) phenylacetonitrile; 4 - hydroxyphenylacetonitri le and 4 - hydroxyphenyl-acetamide. (Mutation Research No. 224-1989).
• Contraceptive Ability of Moringa:
A study at Jiwaji University, Gwalior (India) on estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, contraceptive activities of Moringa Root Extract showed that mice had their ovaries removed, they were given an extract to drink, there was an increase in weight of uterus. Estrogenic activity is demonstrated by stimulation of uterine tissue activity.
When the mice were given this extract together with estradiol dipropionate (EDP), there was a continuation of the uterine weight decrease compared with the increase in weight when the mice were given EDP alone. In the highest deciduoma trial of 600mg / kg, there was a disordering effect on the deciduoma formation in 50 of the mice. Moringa is thought to be due to a combination of factors (Journal of Ethnopharmacology No. 22-1988).
• Antibiotics activity of Moringa Seeds:
4 (alpha-L-Rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate was determined to have the strongest antibiotic activity of the active ingredients extracted from Moringa seeds (Moringa also contains benzyl isothiocyanate). The compound inhibits the growth of many pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The minimum concentration to inhibit Bacillus subtilis is 56 micromol / l and to inhibit Mycobacterium phlei is 40 micromol / l (Planta Medica No. 42-1981).
• Moringa Root Activity on Oxalate Renal Kidney:
Experiments at KLES University of Pharmacy, Nehru Nagar, Karnakata (India) on rats with kidney stones, ethylene glycol oxalate, and water extract with root alcohol and Moringa core significantly reduced the concentration of oxalate in urine by interfering with the synthesis of oxalate in the body. The formation of kidney stones is also significantly reduced when the mice use this extract as a preventive measure for kidney stones.
• Use Moringa seeds to filter the water:
Moringa oleifera contains a number of natural "polyelectrolytes" that can be used as a flocculant to make water. Water filtration test results: Turbid water (15-25 NTU turbidity, containing Bacterial bacteria 280-500 cfu ml (-1), coli bacteria from 280-500 MPN 100 ml (-1) .Using Moringa as a sedative and agglomerating agent, resulting in very good results (turbidity only 0.3-1.5 NTU, 5-20 cfu and coli remaining 5-10 MPN ..) This filter is very useful in rural areas of poor countries .. and is widely applied. in India (Journal of Water and Health No. 3-2005).
VII. Uses of Moringa in the world:
• America: Currently, it is the largest importer of Moringa raw materials, used in high-tech cosmetics, drinking water, and more importantly, the extract into refined raw materials for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry.
• India: Moringa is called sainjna, mungna (Hindi, Asam, Bengal ..); Sanskrit: Shobhanjana. Is one of the "popular" very popular medicinal plants in India. Body bark is used to treat fever, stomach pain, menstrual abdominal pain, tooth decay, as a balm to treat hair loss, pain in the throat (shared with turmeric flowers, black pepper, Dioscorea oppositifolia root ), treatment of leprosy (used with opium), pain around the neck (applied with the base of Melothria heterophylla, Cocci nia cordifolia, melon seeds (Luffa) and Lagenaria vulgaris), treatment of hematuria; antipyretic treatment (used with Calotropis gigantea body shell, Black pepper, and Key lime. Flowers are used as a tonic, diuretic. Crushed fruit with ginger and Justicia gendarussa leaves to make medicine to treat broken bones. Causes vomiting and abdominal pain during menstruation Nuts: Oil from seeds to treat rheumatism.
• Pakistan: The tree is called Sajana, Sigru. Like in India, Moringa is used a lot to make folk remedies. In addition to the ways
Used as in India, the components of the plant are also used as: crushed fake leaves covering wounds, treating swelling and boils, covering and puffiness to treat swelling, mixed with honey to cover eyes to treat eye swelling red. The trunk shell is used for abortion by introducing the uterus to cause dilation. Root bark uses sharp water to treat toothache and ear pain. Fresh roots of young plants used to treat fever, rheumatism, gout, swelling of the liver and spleen. Plastic from young shoots used with milk to treat headaches, tooth swelling ..
• Central America: Moringa is used to treat constipation, warts and helminths
• Saudi Arabia : The seeds are used to treat abdominal pain, indigestion, fever, skin swelling, diabetes and hip pain.
• Vietnam : Moringa root is believed to be stimulating, helps blood circulation, eases digestion, acts on the nervous system, and soothes pain. Flowers are aphrodisiac. Nuts relieve pain. Plastic (gomme) from the body has a calming effect.
Dosage and side effects to note:
There are currently no reports of health hazards in the use of Moringa Root and Moringa according to therapeutic doses. However, taking too high doses can cause nausea, dizziness and vomiting.
Dosage for oral administration: 5gram / kg of body weight, tested on rats, causing excessive keratinization of gastric and hepatocytes.
Doses administered through the bladder membrane were 22 to 50 mg / kg of body weight fatal in test rats.
Moringa root should not be used in pregnant women, as it is likely to cause abortion.
(Source: DS Tran Viet Hung / Can Tho University)
"According to Science & Life"