Ganoderma has the effect of increasing the body's resistance so it can be used to treat many diseases. Here are the evidences for the two most outstanding and interesting effects of Yunzhi mushrooms: cancer treatment and HIV.
Cancer treatment effects:
In Japan, since 1970, PSK from Yunzhi mushrooms has been shown to extend life expectancy by 5 years or more for cancer patients of various types: stomach cancer, colon cancer. , throat cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer (PMKidd, 2000).
And the PSP has been used to treat stage 2 and 3 cancer in China for a long time. This polysaccharide also has the effect of extending the shelf life of at least 5 years for patients with esophageal cancer. PSP has also been shown to improve health, relieve pain and enhance immunity in 70–97 patients with gastric, esophageal, lung, ovarian and cervical cancers (PMKidd, 2000). Research conducted by Tsang et al. On 34 patients with advanced lung cancer showed that after 28 days of treatment with PSP, the number of blood cells, the antibody content of the people treated were This is higher than those who did not receive treatment (KWTsang et al., 2003). Especially in those treated, the progression of the disease has been significantly slowed down.
Research results by Dr. Kenyon's team at Dove Clinical Treatment Research Center (Winchester, London) on 30 cancer patients of various forms indicate that treatment with pulverized powder from biomass of Yunzhi dramatically reduces the activity of the telomerase enzyme (an essential enzyme that helps cancer cells fight off the "death" process), and significantly enhances the immune response against tumors. Therefore, research has shown that special treatment with Yunzhi is still effective in stage 3 and 4 cancers, when chemical and radioactive therapies are no longer effective.
There are many other studies on the anti-cancer effects of Yunzhi mushrooms that perhaps only within the scope of this article will not be able to mention all. The nature and mechanism of action of the active ingredients in Yunzhi mushrooms on cancer are still interested by many scientists in many different fields (biochemistry, immunology, medicine, pharmacy ...) research and more and more new discoveries are published. The potential for prevention and treatment of cancer of Yunzhi mushrooms is huge and very noticeable.
In 1997, RA Collins and Ng.TB (1997) of the University of Hong Kong published research results on the anti-HIV effect of type 1 polysaccharides from Yunzhi mushrooms. Shortly thereafter, many other researchers conducted trials using Yunzhi mushrooms in treating AIDS patients.
A typical example is the Marijke Pfeiffer study on a group of HIV-positive patients (M. Pfeiffer, 2001). These patients were treated with Coriolus MRL, a medicinal product made from Yunzhi mushrooms, combined with acupuncture and herbal remedies; some use HAART, an anti-AIDS drug. The results of the study showed that after 3-4 months of treatment, the patients' health improved, manifested as weight gain, feeling better, and psychological suppression. Especially, the number of viruses in their bodies has decreased dramatically (from a few tens of thousands to a few thousand) and the number of cells presenting for resistance to CD-4 has increased. After the treatment period, all patients recover or completely recover from the consequences of AIDS such as diarrhea, bronchitis, heart attack, neuritis, bacterial infection, fungal infection, etc. Some may stop. There is no need for HAART and can return to normal life, play sports, work again, etc. M. Pfeiffer (2001) has developed a fairly effective treatment regimen for HIV positive patients. count.
Another notable study conducted by G. Rotolo's team (1999) also demonstrated the effect of treating secondary manifestations in disease development in AIDS patients. The patients were all over 35 years old, HIV positive, supplementary treatment with preparations of Yunzhi mushrooms. The results showed that after 15 days of treatment with the content of inoculants used was 3g / day, the number of white blood cells in the patients' bodies increased to about 27 compared to the untreated cases, and this number drops to 14.1 if the amount of inoculants used for treatment is halved. After 45 days of treatment with both regimens, the number of white blood cells in the patient's body increased by 45.2. From these results the author recommends the use of Yunzhi mushroom preparations as an anti-AIDS therapy and recommends further research on the nature of the mushroom's effect on the increase in white blood cell count.
Research on the effects of Yunzhi mushrooms on the prevention of HIV and AIDS is still ongoing. Scientists are mainly focused on the mechanisms of action of the active ingredients in the fungus from which to propose appropriate treatments.
Yunzhi mushrooms are clearly a medicinal mushroom with many preeminent and interesting pharmacological properties. The potential of using Yunzhi mushrooms in clinical treatment, especially for serious diseases such as cancer, AIDS, is very large and needs to be deeply exploited. It is worth noting that the cultivation and production of medicinal mushrooms from this mushroom is inexpensive, very suitable for the conditions of developing countries, while this is a fungus with high medicinal efficacy. Therefore, the development of pharmaceutical production from Yunzhi mushrooms has socio-economic significance, contributes to the protection and improvement of public health, and opens a new direction for the pharmaceutical industry. and Biotechnology.
Immune enhancement effects:
The medicinal effects of Yunzhi mushrooms are mainly based on the ability to enhance the body's immune function, thanks to the activity of the compounds contained in mushrooms. In the world, there have been many studies on the effect of Yunzhi mushrooms on the immunity of the human body and all works have confirmed the immune enhancement effect of this mushroom. According to the research results, the mushroom contains protein-binding polysaccharide compounds with many pharmacological advantages and it is these polysaccharides that determine the immune-boosting effect of the mushroom. These compounds include two main types: PSP (polysaccharide peptide) and PSK (polysaccharide krestin).
PSK and PSP have similar chemical structure and properties. They are all mixtures of sugars linked to certain proteins (QYYang et al., 1992). Both have a molecular weight of about 100 kDa and the polypeptide chains in their molecule contain a large number of aspartic and glutamic amino acids (Ng.TB, 1998). These polysaccharides are resistant to the effects of proteolytic enzymes (T.Hotta et al., 1981).
The common effect of PSP and PSK is activation, enhancement of the production and protection of immune system cells (PMKidd, 2000). Animal body experiments have shown that the PSP has a wide range of activities. This compound induces stimulation to increase the production of interferons, interleukins and TNFs (necrosis factor), thereby promoting the production of Lymphocyte cells, while activating macrophages (WKLiu). et al., 1993; GDYu et al., 1996; XWMao et al., 1996). Macrophages and Lymphocyte cells are the two main types of immune cells that work against foreign invaders and kill foreign cells - cancer cells. In addition, the PSP also helps regulate the activity of cytokines, which are a key component in the process of "suicide", which is important to prevent the formation and development of tumors. PSK and PSP also work to increase the toxicity and the number of natural killer cells for foreign cells. Research conducted by Munroe et al. Showed that the number of natural killer cells in the body of 36 immunocompromised patients increased by 35 when they were treated with polysaccharide extracted from Yunzhi mushrooms (Munroe, 2004). Another effect of these polysaccharides is the ability to enhance activity and production (via transcriptional induction) of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes (WSWei et al., 1996; Y. Kobayashi et al., 1994 ) and glutathione peroxidase (ZJPang et al., 2000). These enzymes play a very important role in counteracting the damaging effects of free oxidizing agents, one of the main causes of cancer.
Based on the above effects, PSK and PSP enhance the body's resistance in general, helping to counteract the immune suppressive effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Chung Kuo Yao, Li Hsueh Pao, 1996), Helps curb the damage and inhibits the growth of tumors, while also enhancing the function of the liver, increasing appetite, regulating the nervous system and reducing pain of wounds.
Particularly notable are the anti-cancer effects of PSK and PSP. Studies have shown that PSK and PSP work with various types of cancer cells such as carcinoma, sarcoma and leukemia (Qukyang et al., Cancer cells). 1992). Research by Hsieh et al. (TCHsieh et al., 2002) shows that PSP affects G-phase in the mitotic cycle of blood cancer cells, thereby inducing apoptosis. . Another study (Y.Dong et al., 1997) showed that these polysaccharides have the ability to inhibit DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. liver. PSK and PSP do not directly affect cancer cells but indirectly through the immune-boosting effects mentioned above, in particular activating immune cells and enhancing the activity of enzymes against oxidizing agents.
Recently PSP has also been shown to protect against the infection of HIV type 1 virus (RACollins and Ng.TB, 1997). This polysaccharide prevents the link between the HIV-1 gp protein of the virus and the CD4 receptor, thereby preventing the entry of the virus into immune cells, and also inhibits the HIV-1 reverse enzyme. transcriptase and glycohydrolase necessary for viral formation. Therefore, PSP is recommended as an effective therapy against HIV type 1.
The polysaccharides of Yunzhi are highly resistant to heat and light, persist in the body, and have not particularly been found to have any side effects, even for pregnant women, so are appropriate. for many therapies (PMKidd, 2000). They can be extracted from fruiting bodies or Yunzhi hyphae using hot water.
In addition to polysaccharides which are the main components that determine the pharmacological effects of Yunzhi mushrooms, mushrooms contain many enzymes such as SOD (with the above effect), cytochrome P-450, an important ingredient in detoxification of substances that are entered into the cell, and secondary metabolites have the effect of inhibiting thrombin, preventing blood clotting.
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